Hacker Tried to Poison Town’s Water Supply

In Oldsmar, Florida, a city of 15,000 people in the Tampa Bay area, a hacker remotely accessed the water treatment plant and adjusted the lye levels in the city’s drinking water, raising it to more than 100 times the normal level.

Pinellas County Sheriff Bob Gualtieri said, “It’s a bad act. It’s a bad actor. It’s not just a little chlorine, or a little fluoride – you’re basically talking about lye.”

A remote access software program called TeamViewer was used to infiltrate the water treatment facility. The intruder entered the system twice: 8 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. It is unclear whether the hacker entered the system by the use of a password, though it is required to use the system remotely, according to the assistant city manager Felicia Donnelly.

The hacker’s efforts were immediately caught by the system’s operator, who reduced the levels within the system. No significant changes were noted in the city’s water supply; the public was never in danger. The intrusion lasted between three and five minutes, according to the sheriff. 

Senator Marco Rubio, R-FL, said the attempt to poison the water supply should be treated as a “matter of national security.”

The incident highlights how critical infrastructure systems are to hackers due to online and remote-use programs. Experts have warned that these programs can be exploited by hackers looking to harm or inflict bioterrorism. Nationwide, water plant operators (including those at dams, oil, and gas pipelines) have welcomed the digital technology transformation, allowing contractors and engineers to monitor temperature, pressure, and chemical levels from remote work stations.

During the 2020 coronavirus lockdown in Israel, officials reported hackers affiliated with Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps made a failed attempt to hack the country’s water supply and adjust the chlorine levels. Such attacks date back to 2007, when the United States and Israel conducted a joint attack on Iran’s Natanz nuclear facility, disabling nearly 1,000 uranium centrifuges.

The former director of the Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Chris Krebs, said, “Unfortunately, that water treatment facility is the rule rather than the exception. When an organization is struggling to make payroll and keep systems on a generation of technology created in the last decade, even the basics in cybersecurity often are out of reach.”

Gualtieri said the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the United States Secret Service are involved in the investigation, but the county itself is using an in-house lab for the forensic analysis. Officials stressed it would have taken 24 to 36 hours for the water to be fully contaminated. When levels are out of limit or range, a number of alarms will sound, alerting staff.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in offering the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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Former Michigan Governor and Eight Others Face Charges in Flint Water Crisis

After a nearly two-year-long criminal investigation, Michigan prosecutors announced 41 counts (34 felonies and seven misdemeanors) against nine high-ranking government officials, including former governor Rick Snyder, his top advisors, trusted medical officials, and two emergency managers. Two of the officials were charged with nine counts of involuntary manslaughter.

According to prosecutors, Flint residents’ health and safety were left unprotected by officials. The residents were poisoned and sickened by Legionnaires’ disease. In April 2014, the city’s water supply was switched to the Flint River, which caused increased levels of lead in their drinking water. From June 2014 through October 2015, at least nine people died from Legionnaires’ disease, a form of pneumonia caused by waterborne bacteria.

Michigan’s solicitor general Fadwa Hammond said, “The Flint water crisis is not some relic of the past. At this very moment, the people of Flint continue to suffer from the categorical failure of public officials at all levels of government who trampled upon their trust and evaded accountability for far too long.”

Previously, fifteen state and local officials had been accused by state prosecutors of crimes; seven took plea deals, and eight more were awaiting trial. In 2019, prosecutors stunningly dropped all pending charges and began a new investigation.

Many of the same officials are indicted in this case, including Nick Lyon (former state health director) and Dr. Eden Wells (former state chief medical officer.) Both were charged with nine counts of involuntary manslaughter in the deaths of those residents who succumbed to Legionnaires’ disease.

E-mails from 2015 indicate state officials were, in fact, aware of an increase in Legionnaires’ disease cases, possibly tied to Flint’s troubled water supply. Ten months later, in early 2016, former governor Rick Snyder informed the public of the situation.

In late 2015, Flint city officials switched the water supply back to its previous source, Lake Huron. Despite the shift, countless Flint residents distrust the water supply even though city officials insist it is safe to drink.

For more information, read the full Detroit Free Press article. Also, check out one of our past blog posts where we discussed the State of Michigan paying Flint water crisis victims $600M.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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New Water Flow Regulations Proposed in the U.S. for Showerheads, Dishwashers, and Washing Machines

Regulations on water usage have been implemented for decades due to droughts and energy efficiency (using fewer fossil fuels) in an effort to lower overall consumer costs. Higher usage drives prices up, which in turn causes non-renewable resources to diminish through time.

Since 1992, federal law has stipulated the amount of water pouring out of showerheads in one minute should be no more than 2.5 gallons. In 2013, newer shower fittings with multiple nozzles caused the Obama administration to define the restrictions and apply the 2.5-gallon rule to the entire fixture. Therefore, if a showerhead is comprised of four nozzles, no more than 2.5 gallons (total) should exit the nozzles within one minute.  

A new proposal enacted by the Trump administration would allow each nozzle to spray as much as 2.5 gallons, which could amount to five gallons of total water being spewed out per minute if two showerhead nozzles are installed. Multiply that by four or five, and showerheads could be pushing out 10 to 15 gallons per minute, costing consumers hundreds of dollars in usage bills.

The 28-year-old law was partially implemented due to the megadrought the western states have been experiencing for two decades. University of Michigan environmentalist Dean Jonathan Overpeck said, “[It is] the first observed multidecadal megadrought in recorded U.S. history.”

Additionally, the Trump administration has advanced easier dishwasher regulations that exempt fast-cleaning machines from decades-old rules. The Department of Energy created a separate product class for dishwashers with a short cycle, classifying them as the “normal” cycle, with no limit on energy or water use.

Over the past three decades, dishwasher water and energy use have declined by more than 50 percent due to federal standards and manufacturer innovations. The first energy-efficient standard for dishwashers was set in 1987 by Congress. It was updated three times since then, most recently in 2012 by the Department of Energy.

A third proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy would allow new clothes washers and dryers to waste unlimited amounts of water and energy. The current efficiency standards for washing machines were set in 2012 and save consumers roughly $365 over an appliance’s lifetime, with utility bills and purchase costs factored in.

The Department of Energy is prevented by federal law from weakening the efficiency standards. Still, the proposed new rule would dodge that regulation by creating a separate “product class” for machines using a short cycle, and renaming it their “normal” cycle, much like the proposal for dishwashers. No energy efficiency or water use standard would be implemented at first, as these developments take years. Many new washing machines come with a short cycle option.

The American Council for an Energy- Efficient Economy (ACEEE) reported that an analysis of performance, features, and price efficiency has improved since the standards were implemented. Simultaneously, product prices have decreased, meaning a better overall return on investment with these machines.

Clean water is vital for showering, laundry, and washing dishes. Ensure your water is chemical and rust-free with a consultation from the experts at Reynolds Water Conditioning.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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City of Destin, FL Wins Water Tank of the Year

Across the United States and Canada, over 23,000 votes were cast and 300 water tanks nominated for Tank of the Year competition sponsored by Tnemec Company, Inc. A panel of water tank enthusiasts selected the tank design based on criteria such as artistic value, significance of the tank to the community, and challenges encountered during the project. Bossier City, Louisiana was the winner of the People’s Choice competition, as it won 6,281 votes from members of the public.

Scott Keilbey, Director of Sales – Water Tank Market at Tnemec explained, “The tank includes a one-of-a-kind seascape mural that now stands high above Destin in an ultra-realistic homage to all the wildlife that call the Gulf of Mexico home. From the beginning, Destin knew its tank would need to be unique, which is why they chose long-time water tank mural artist, Eric Henn, to complete the piece.”

The tank was painted with Tnemec’s UV-resistant, long-lasting fluoropolymer finish, Series 700 HydroFlon, which will ensure the design will last through the hot and humid Florida climate.

Among the top 12 finalists for 2020 include tanks in: Bossier City, Louisiana; Hot Springs, Arkansas; Muscatine, Iowa; Cumming, Iowa; White Bear Lake, Minnesota; Grafton, Ohio; Hutchinson, Kansas; Troy, Virginia; Jansen, Nebraska; Pain Court, Ontario; and Kansas City, Missouri.

Keilbey explained, “This is the 15th anniversary of the competition, which recognizes municipalities for their aesthetic, creative, and innovative uses of Tnemec’s high-performance coatings on water storage tank projects. This year’s finalists represent several different types of water tanks in various shapes and sizes, all of them impressive for one reason or another.”

Destin’s tank will be featured as the month of January in Tnemec’s 2021 water tank calendar and presented as winner of Tank of the Year. The following months of the calendar will include finalists and other nominees.

To read more about the water tank competition, refer to the full article by Water World. For all of your drinking water questions or needs, contact the professionals at Reynolds Water Conditioning today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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Government Grants Being Paid to MI Schools to Reduce Lead in Drinking Water

The Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation (WIIN) Act was signed into law in 2016. Funding under this act included reducing lead in school drinking water across the nation. The EPA recently announced the first-ever selections under the WIIN Act’s reduction in Lead Exposure via Drinking Water. These monies will support needy communities and schools in the removal of lead from drinking water.

Two cities in Michigan will receive funds: Benton Harbor ($5.6 million) and Grand Rapids ($5.1 million) to replace lead service lines. Other states include Indiana, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maryland, Illinois, Virginia, and Massachusetts.

Various states have conducted a one-time transfer (from the Clean Water State Revolving Fund [CWSRF]) to other states (under the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund [DWSRF]) to cover costs related to remediating lead in the water supply. This is all accomplished under the Water Infrastructure Fund Transfer Act (WIFTA) and has totaled nearly $50 million to support efforts thus far.

The WIIN Act was founded in 2016 to identify, remediate, and maintain America’s drinking water infrastructure. Three drinking water acts are under the umbrella of the WIIN Act; these promote public health and protect the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made more than $69 million available to support the Lead Testing in School and Child Care Program Drinking Water grant programs. Moreover, an additional $42.8 million has been allocated to assist public water systems in underserved, small, and disadvantaged communities unable to meet the Safe Drinking Water Act requirements.

To read more about the grant, visit the Environmental Protection Agency’s website. For the freshest, purest tasting water free from chemicals and other contaminants, contact the experts at Reynolds Water Conditioning today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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Ann Arbor’s Gelman Dioxane Plume to be Remediated in Landmark Agreement

Local officials in Ann Arbor announced a proposed settlement after years of fighting in court for better cleanup of the Gelman Dioxane Plume. A more aggressive plan includes thorough monitoring of the plume’s expansion through the city’s groundwater and treating pollution at the source. Gelman Sciences is to blame for the polluted water.

Washtenaw County Board Chairman Jason Morgan said, “This is a monumental moment in our 40-plus-year effort to clean up the Gelman dioxane plume. We finally have a new proposed consent judgment and have made the documents public. This is a big deal.”

Polluter Gelman Sciences would be required to install new groundwater extraction wells to remove dioxane pollution from the environment, as well as more monitoring wells to further investigate the migration of the toxic chemical, with new trigger levels for taking action. They would also be required to install two new remediation techniques to increase removal of dioxane in the ground at the source off of Wagner Road in Ann Arbor.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies dioxane as a carcinogen by all routes of exposure. It can cause kidney, liver, and respiratory system damage. Just a few Parts Per Billion (ppb) in drinking water with long-term exposure poses a one-in-100,000 cancer risk, according to the EPA.

The proposed settlement formalizes the state’s newer standard of 7.2 ppb down from 85 ppb level of dioxane in drinking water.

The dioxane plume was first discovered in the 1980s, originating from Gelman’s filter manufacturing complex, and it has plagued the groundwater ever since. Gelman Sciences has done little to remedy the situation beyond pump-and-treat remediation. The plume has spread for miles, including east into Ann Arbor city limits, causing fears it could poison the city’s primary drinking water supply, Barton Pond, in addition to many wells.

For further reading, the Gelman Proposed Settlement Documents are on the city of Ann Arbor’s website. To protect yourself and your family from dangerous chemicals found in drinking water, contact the experts at Reynolds Water Conditioning today.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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Erin Brockovich Claims the US is in an Unimaginable Water Crisis

In 2000, Erin Brockovich became the subject of an Academy-award winning feature film, which depicted her role in a lawsuit against Pacific Gas & Electric. Portrayed by Julia Roberts, Brockovich is known for almost single-handedly bringing down the California-based power company accused of polluting a city’s water supply. Through the years, she has continued to raise awareness concerning pollution and other environmental threats.

In an opinion article for The Guardian, Brockovich wrote, “We are in a water crisis beyond anything you can imagine. Pollution and toxins are everywhere, stemming from the hazardous wastes of industry and agriculture. We’ve got more than 40,000 chemicals on the market today with only a few hundred regulated. We’ve had industrial byproducts discarded into the ground and into our water supply for years. This crisis affects everyone – rich or poor, black or white, Republican or Democrat. Communities everywhere think they are safe when they are not.”

“These issues start with tiny seeds of deception that add up over months and years to become major problems. Our resources are exhausted. Corruption is rampant. Officials are trying to cover their tracks. People are not putting the pieces together when it comes to the severity of this crisis. I’ve got senators and doctors calling me, asking me what to do,” Brockovich stated.

Brockovich stressed the importance of not succumbing to despair. No single person or entity can correct the issues solo; communities must work in tandem to remedy this issue.  In response to the countless calls and community outreach she has experienced, Brockovich created the Community Healthbook to allow individuals and community groups to “report and view health-related concerns and community environmental issues by geographic area and health-related topic.”

For more information or to read the entire article, check out The Guardian. Want to know what’s in your water? Call the water purification experts at Reynolds Water Conditioning Co. at 800-572-9575. We test water quality and purification, install filters, and much more.

Reynolds Water Conditioning Co. was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in offering the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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State of Michigan to Pay Victims of Flint Water Crisis $600M

Flint residents affected by the toxic lead water crisis will be eligible to receive payments from a $600 million preliminary settlement. A court-monitored victim compensation fund will allow Flint water crisis victims to receive hundreds of millions of dollars in payments. The parties involved in the settlement include the state of Michigan, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, and all individual state defendants, including former governor Rick Snyder.

Almost 80 percent of the settlement fund will be divvied out to children who were under 18 when the crisis began in April 2014. The effects of lead are especially poignant in children, as the mineral impacts brain development. An earmarked $12-million fund will be created in escrow to offer special education and other services for children who suffer chronic health/behavioral impacts as a direct result of lead poisoning. Another $35 million will be placed in a trust for “forgotten children” who cannot file claims within the required time frame and will be eligible to do so when they reach adult age.

“The residents of Flint were victims of horrendous decisions by the state, its employees, and other defendants that have resulted in tragic and devastating consequences,” said Florida attorney Ted Leopold. He was appointed by a federal judge along with Royal Oak attorney Michael Pitt, to lead a class-action litigation combining scores of individual lawsuits. “While we can never undo the damage that occurred to the citizens and community of Flint, we are pleased that today we were able to secure a measure of justice for the Flint community,’ Leopold stated.

As for the US Environmental Protection Agency and other private organizations involved in the shift of Flint’s drinking water source from (safe) Lake Huron to the (toxic) Flint River, litigation will continue.

Concerned about toxins, minerals, and/or contaminants in your drinking water? The experts at Reynolds Water Conditioning are committed to solving your water needs. We offer several services to ensure your water is the best it has ever been…chemical-free. For more information about the Flint Water Crisis, read the full Detroit Free Press article.

Reynolds Water Conditioning was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. Still owned and operated by the Reynolds family, we take pride in providing the highest quality products at a cost-effective price. If your tap water lacks the quality you deserve, contact us today at www.reynoldswater.com or call 800-572-9575.

Written by the digital marketing staff at Creative Programs & Systems: www.cpsmi.com.

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Michigan’s New PFAS Rules Among Strictest in Nation

PFAS, known as “Forever Chemicals” due to their persistence in the environment and human body indefinitely, saturate the water supply in Michigan. These highly toxic chemicals have been linked to cancer; liver, thyroid, and pancreas conditions; ulcerative colitis; hormone and immune system interference; high cholesterol; and a host of negative issues for pregnant women and children. PFAS are found at some level in public water serving about 1.9 million people and more than 11,000 sites. A Detroit Free Press article stated, “PFAS contamination is Michigan’s biggest environmental crisis in 40 years.”

Michigan groundwater is saturated with PFAS chemicals at levels which exceed standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Seventeen rivers, lakes, streams, and ponds have “do not eat” advisories for fish; at least one county issued the same warning for deer due to PFAS. The entire country is dealing with an emerging crisis regarding PFAS contamination.

In an effort to regulate this toxic chemical, the state of Michigan issued enforceable standards to limit the amount of PFAS allowed in drinking water. These standards took effect on August 3 and are among the nation’s strictest. This article by The Detroit News explains the new regulations in-depth. Typically, the EPA develops nationwide standards based on states’ adaptations. States like Michigan, New Jersey, and New Hampshire have taken the lead and created their own standards without the EPA’s involvement.

Since PFAS are emerging toxins, many consumers are unfamiliar with the chemicals and unsure about how to protect themselves from ingesting them. Thankfully, household filters – specifically reverse osmosis and two-stage – are the most effective way to remove PFAS from drinking water. Activated carbon filters are also beneficial for PFAS filtration. Don’t have a reverse osmosis or two-stage filter? No problem! Call Reynolds Water Conditioning Co. at 800-572-9575. Reynolds Water was established in 1931 and is Michigan’s oldest water conditioning treatment company. www.reynoldswater.com

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Infectious Diseases Can Spread Via Drinking Water

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak reminds us how rapidly infectious agents can travel the globe. Today it is possible to be anywhere in the world within hours. Our increasingly mobile society means that diseases that used to seem exotic and distant can impact any population. Of the 50 most deadly infectious diseases, approximately a third may be transmitted by drinking water.

The top deadliest diseases from drinking water
The following is a summary of the top deadliest diseases known to infect humans that have a waterborne transmission route ranked from the least to most deadly (numbers in parentheses indicate ranking). Table 1 includes these and other infections that made the list, considering all transmission routes.1

Lassa fever (49) was originally discovered in the late ’60s in Lassa, Nigeria. That country reported that a new outbreak began in January 2020 with over 1,700 new cases suspected. An estimated 300,000 infections occur annually.2 Although primarily endemic in West Africa, rodents are an intermediate host and can transmit the disease to people. Ingestion of contaminated food and water is another common transmission route. Symptoms may progress to hemorrhaging, fever and multiple organ failure.

Rabbit fever (48), also known as tularemia, is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This highly contagious organism causes an average of 126 cases per year in the US. Tularemia can be spread through arthropod bites, contact with infected animal tissues, inhalation of contaminated aerosols and ingestion of contaminated food or water. Historically, F. tularensis has been utilized as a bioweapon. Thus, officials monitor carefully for increases that might indicate foul play.

Taenia solium (46) is a type of tapeworm found in pork whose larval stage causes a disease known as cysticercosis. The disease spreads through feces-contaminated food or water from an infected person. Larvae then invade the central nervous system tissues. Endemic in Latin America, cases are routinely diagnosed in US-born residents.3

Rotavirus (45) is the number one cause of childhood diarrhea worldwide. Although the availability of a vaccine dramatically reduced the number of rotavirus deaths, an estimated 215,000 are still attributed to this organism.4
The majority of cholera (42) cases can be treated with oral rehydration solutions but in many areas treatments for the severe, acute watery diarrhea is not available. It is estimated that up to four million cases and 143,000 deaths occur from the bacterium Vibrio cholerae annually. The current (seventh) pandemic hit South Asia in 1962, Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991.5

Typhoid fever (42) cases are estimated as high as 22 million with 210,000 deaths annually. Spread via food and water contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and paratyphi, it’s the largest global burden in in the developing world.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (40) causes severe outbreaks of food and waterborne disease. The disease is usually self-limiting but may progress to bloody diarrhea and the deadly haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), which can result in acute renal failure. Children and the elderly are most at risk.

Botulism (31) is the most deadly toxin known. Produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, the toxin is destroyed by conventional drinking water treatment but can spread via intentional acts of contamination. A powerful neurotoxin, botulism death usually occurs following muscular paralysis and respiratory failure.

Legionnaire’s disease (31) is spread via water aerosols from showers, cooling towers, fountains and hot tubs. The Legionella pneumophila bacteria grows in premise-plumbing systems. The 10,000 cases of Legionnaire’s disease reported in the US annually are thought to be a large underestimation of the true disease burden. The elderly, smokers and people with chronic lung disease are most at risk.

Anthrax (31) spores are produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and are commonly found in soil and infect domestic and wild animals feeding on outdoor plants and grasses. Once inside the human body, the spores become active, multiply and produce potent toxins leading to severe illness and death.
SARS (29) or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (which became a global threat in 2003), is caused by a strain of coronavirus. Symptoms similar to influenza complicate rapid and distinct diagnoses. Respiratory illness is often accompanied by severe diarrhea. Although rare, case-fatality rates may be as high as 50 percent.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (27) is a chronic autoimmune condition that attacks the nerves, causing a paralytic illness similar to polio that can progress to total body paralysis and death. Although the exact cause is unknown, the syndrome often occurs following acute infections from respiratory or waterborne microbes, including influenza, Zika and hepatitis A viruses.

Listeriosis (18) is caused by the food and waterborne bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Found commonly in soft cheeses and ready-to-eat meat products, infections may become invasive and lead to severe health outcomes including septicemia, meningitis and spontaneous abortion.

MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) (15), like it’s relative SARS, may be spread by the respiratory and fecal-oral route. First reported in 2012, MERS is the most deadly virus with a possible waterborne route on our list of top 50 infections, with a death rate of over 34 percent.

Minimizing endemic and epidemic waterborne disease
The only disease that has been successfully eradicated from the globe is smallpox. As microbial hazards continue to emerge due to mutations or expanded routes of transmission, efforts to contain their spread will be promoted. Most microbial pathogens spread via potable water supplies can be removed or inactivated by the use of POU drinking water treatment devices. Therefore, POU device technology designed to remove microbes is recommended to control endemic and epidemic illness risks.

Original Article: http://wcponline.com/2020/03/15/25764/

By: Kelly A. Reynolds, MSPH, PhD

Posted on: Sunday, March 15th, 2020

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